Category Archives: Learning

Benefits of Singing With Little Ones!

Singing and music have long been important parts of early childhood education and childrearing. Recent studies show that singing to babies and young kids has numerous neurological and cognitive benefits for the child, as well as social benefits for both the child and parent alike.

Interior of our new book Twinkle, Twinkle, Diaper You! (illustration by Ying-Hwa Hu).

Many parents are uncomfortable singing to their children because they are not confident in their own singing abilities, instead relying on curated playlists and digital music to soothe their babies. Professionals point out, though, that the parent’s voice, not the song quality, is what matters. Singing to babies, both in utero and post-partum, increases babies’ ability to recognize their parents’ voices and appearances and cultivates feelings of safety and comfort in this recognition, thus fostering a strong bond between parent and child.

 

In conjunction with cultivating the parent-child relationship, parents should pay close attention to their baby’s various reactions to songs (cooing, babbling, giggling, pointing, etc.) and respond to them accordingly. In her book Talk to Me, Baby!, the great early childhood expert—and our dear friend—Betty Bardige explains, “The baby’s coos, babbles, and facial and body language let the adult know when they are in sync and when they need to reestablish their connection.” Listening and modifying the networks of communication will help strengthen the bond between parent and child, as well as further establish channels of verbal and non-verbal communication.

 

There are additional benefits associated with singing to babies. Creating a schedule for specific songs at certain times of day can help create a routine for your child. Babies feel secure when they are able to anticipate what will happen next, thus associating certain actions or times of the day—like a diaper change, dinner, or bedtime—with certain songs. This is sometimes called verbal mapping, a term used to describe the adult narration of a baby’s life. Putting this narration into a song routine also helps babies develop more positive associations with everyday activities. 

 

New research suggests that singing to babies helps improve cognitive development in young children. One study shows that singing songs can increase a child’s attention span and positive displays of emotion. Other studies illustrate a correlation between exposure to music and rhythm and positive social connections. This means singing to an infant may not only support their immediate cognitive growth, but can also have a lasting impact on their social development.

Interior of our new book Twinkle, Twinkle, Diaper You! (illustration by Ying-Hwa Hu).

Furthermore, singing is often a child’s first exposure to language.  Singing a variety of songs and lullabies helps to successfully introduce infants to new vocabulary. By introducing new words in conjunction with actions or visuals (tickling a baby’s tummy or showing a baby pictures of farm animals), babies are better able to learn these words by their association to the actions/objects of action or images.

 

Children’s songs and lullabies can help grow a child’s cultural awareness as well. In multilingual households, singing songs in each language helps the baby learn to make word associations across languages—and is a stepping stone in bilingual speech development. Singing lullabies that celebrate one’s culture or heritage is also a great way to introduce a child to that part of their identity.

 

There are many ways to begin singing to your child or new practices to try if you already do! If you are interested in exploring your creative side, try writing your own song. It does not need to be complex; simple lyrics and rhythm are enough for your baby to recognize. Betty Bardige writes that songs and games “are especially fun (and helpful for building language) when they relate to what the baby is doing or seeing.”

 

Or, you can start with a common children’s song like “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star” and transform it into your own song (as the mother does in our new book Twinkle, Twinkle, Diaper You!). Other good songs are “You Are My Sunshine,” “The ABCs,” and “The Wheels On The Bus.” 

 

Once you feel comfortable singing to yourself and your baby, there are many musical exercises to try with children of all ages!

How To Start (And Continue) Talking To Kids About Race

Talking to children about race, racism, and police brutality can be intimidating and challenging, but we believe it is imperative in the fight for an anti-racist community. Here are 10 multimedia resources (articles, podcasts, interviews, etc.) to assist parents, teachers, educators, and caregivers in starting and continuing conversations with children.

 

Articles

UNICEF: Talking to your kids about racism: How to start the important conversation and keep it going, June 9, 2020

Comprehensive and age-specific advice for talking to children about race. Research is based in some scientific background.

 

PBS: How to Talk Honestly With Children About Racism, June 9, 2020

General advice for talking to younger children. Includes links to outside resources.

 

VOX: How to talk to kids about racism, explained by a psychologist, June 9, 2020

More specific information about discussing protests and police brutality. Information is provided by a licensed psychologist.

 

ADL: Race Talk: Engaging Young People in Conversations about Race and Racism

Information and advice for teachers and educators on talking about race during late childhood/early adolescence.

 

CHLA: Talking With Children About Race and Racism—an Age-by-Age Guide, June 10, 2020

Age-specific, science-based advice from doctors on talking about race with children.

 

Podcasts

EmbraceRace: Supporting Kids Of Color In the Wake Of Racialized Violence, 2016

Interviews with parents, teachers, and expert guests, including several people of color. Discusses when and how to support children of color in the aftermath of racialized violence.

 

NPR: How White Parents Can Talk To Their Kids About Race, June 4, 2016

Discusses some of the negative consequences of not talking to white children about race and racism.

 

Resource Lists

EmbraceRace: 20 Picture Books for 2020: Readings to Embrace Race, Provide Solace & Do Good, 2020

A list of picture books to assist in talking to kids about race and racism. Includes Spanish options.

 

ECEA: Resources for Educators Focusing on Anti-Racist Learning and Teaching, 2015

Resources to assist teachers seeking to cultivate an anti-racist classroom environment. Provides links to many outside sources.

 

Discussion

NYT: Talking to Children About Race, Policing and Violence, December 7, 2016

A roundtable discussion between New York Times employees who are parents (primarily people of color) about how they talk to their children about race/racism.

 

Tips and Tricks for Trilingual Households

Photo from Clean Up, Up, Up! / ¡Arriba, arriba, arriba a limpiar! by Ellen Mayer.

It can sometimes be intimidating to think about teaching children multiple languages—especially if one or both parents are not fluent in all of the languages. Living in a trilingual household often comes with its own set of challenges. But, while language learning can, and most likely will, be difficult, it doesn’t have to be scary! Below is a list of tips and tricks for trilingual households to start at birth and continue throughout childhood.

 

Start Early and Use Native Languages First

Many trilingual households in the US are made up of two bilingual parents living in an English-dominated culture. It is thus recommended that each parent only address the child in their own native language. For example, if Parent 1 speaks Spanish and English and Parent 2 speaks German and English, Parent 1 should address their child in Spanish and Parent 2 should address their child in German.

 

Beginning this practice in infancy improves a child’s language acquisition in each language and teaches the child to distinguish between languages depending on audience. This is sometimes called the Minority Language at Home strategy, in which a child will speak and native languages at home while speaking and learning English in public (at schools, parks, shopping centers, etc.).

 

Quality Language Exposure Over Quantity Language Exposure

Children will be less likely to master a language if learning becomes tedious or feels like a task. To avoid this, it can be beneficial to incorporate language learning into a child’s interests. For example, if a child likes singing and dancing, they may enjoy learning a non-dominant language through song lyrics rather than books or worksheets. Similarly, if a child enjoys playing with toy cars, asking questions about what they’re doing in a non-dominant language will expose the child to new vocabulary during playtime. Often, if the child has a positive association with the process of language learning, they will be more receptive to learning and using the non-dominant language in these same scenarios.

 

Photo from Clean Up, Up, Up! / ¡Arriba, arriba, arriba a limpiar! by Ellen Mayer.

Incorporate Culture into Language Learning

Maintaining multiple languages in a household can also mean maintaining multiple cultural identities. A fun way for children to learn native languages at home is by associating the language with an aspect of their cultural identity. This can mean incorporating food, music, books, holidays, and more from each respective culture into a child’s everyday life. Doing so allows the child to make associations between the languages they are speaking and the culture from which they come. It can also make speaking each language feel more relevant and applicable in their daily life.

 

Affirm a Child’s Multicultural Identity and Multilingual Abilities

Throughout the process of language learning, it is important to affirm (and reaffirm!) the progress a child is making in language learning. It will allow a child to see value in their multilingual abilities, as well as instill feelings of pride in their multicultural identity! The more positively the child feels, the more progress they will make. 

The Extraordinary Benefits of Bedtime Stories

Reading a bedtime story with your child is a great way to wind down after a long day. You can start reading together at any age—but the earlier you start, the better. However, reading at different stages will allow for different experiences. Babies between 4 and 6 months old will begin to show an interest in books through touch, and by their first year, they’ll be able to understand basic concepts such as colors and shapes. It’s a good idea to start reading board books with children ages 3 and younger. Children ages 4 and up can continue reading a variety of picture books.

Bedtime reading with children can be a magical experience. (images from Read to Me) 

 

Along with introducing your child to early literacy, regularly reading to them has numerous benefits that will help your child as they grow. Here are some of the most important ones!

 

Scheduling a time to read with your child will help establish a routine. Practicing healthy routines at an early stage will prove beneficial. It aids in the development of organization skills, so when children grow older they can practice time management. Separating time to read and relax is just as important as time spent working. Choose a time that works best for you and your child. You don’t have to read every night, but you should set a goal for how much you do want to read. Try not to frame reading as a chore—it should be something your child looks forward to doing with you.

 

Reading stories will broaden your child’s vocabulary. Bedtime stories can be used to practice speech and reading comprehension among all languages. This is an especially helpful tool for homes where more than one language is spoken. If your child comes across a word they don’t know, take time to look up and learn the word together. You may already be familiar with the word, but it is important that your child takes time to practice searching for words unknown to them. This habit will help them when they start reading on their own. You can write down the words you learn together in a notebook and look back at them after you finish each storybook. If your child is learning more than one language, you can write down the word’s translation alongside its definition.

 

Use bedtime stories as a learning tool. You can use storybooks to introduce your child to their own cultural background and ancestry. Or venture from the stories you read growing up and find new, fun retellings of classics. Don’t limit the stories you read—there are countless bedtime tales from around the world. Be sure to research storybooks by authors from diverse backgrounds. Reading stories from various backgrounds will help children learn about different cultures and the importance of diversity and inclusion. Ask your child what types of stories interest them and if there is a country or culture they are curious about. Take time to reflect on the stories you read.

 

 

Read different types of books! Storybooks come in many different forms. Board books are ideal for children in their very early stages of reading and listening, picture books are recommended for children ages 4 and up, and beginner-level chapter books can be read as early as age 5, depending on the content. Graphic novels are also a great choice when your child grows out of the early stages of reading. There are many kid-friendly graphic novels for different age groups. In addition, audiobooks are a practical option, especially after a long day of work and school. You can purchase books that include audio guides or look for the audiobook versions of your favorite storybooks. Play the audiobook and follow along together if you have a physical copy with you. If not, actively listen to the story with your child.

 

A lot of our books make great bedtime stories including Read to Me; Good Night, Little Sea Otter; and Woolly the Wide Awake Sheep.

The Benefits of Telling Old Stories in New Ways

For many of us, classic literature and stories can be daunting at best and inaccessible at worst. The language can be tough to understand and the plots can seem completely outdated and unrelatable. However, retelling old stories in new ways can open up a whole world of literature for people by making it more relevant and understandable. This is especially true for children and teens.

 

When we tell a story, there are two core questions in the backs of our minds: “Why do we tell it?” and “What can we learn from it?” Stories can mean different things to different people, of course, but we tell and retell stories that have an impact on us because at the heart of them are relevant themes: love, hope, perseverance, family, to name a few.

 

Most school systems still have students read works by Shakespeare. If we want people to understand the core messages in a well-known play such as Macbeth—which contains contemporarily relevant questions around tyranny, betrayal, and morality—then why not make it understandable? By using simplified vocabulary and plots, stories like Macbeth can be accessible to a wider audience.

 

As humans, we will always retell stories, modifying them to fit contemporary needs. Consider the Grimm Brothers’ version of Cinderella, for example, and compare it to the more contemporary Disney-movie version. The Grimm Brothers’ version is quite different. It contains some more gruesome elements. Disney’s version eliminates those plot points while keeping other key points, such as the stepmother and stepsisters, similar. There are also other retellings of Cinderella that use the classic story to focus on contemporary issues like feminism.

 

For children especially, stories that contain big words they don’t understand can lead to frustration. While there are definitely benefits to reading stories like The Odyssey to youngsters—such as language acquisition and experiencing the story in its original format— it can be overwhelming. Children also have shorter attention spans than adults, making it much harder to get them to sit and listen to long stories. Starting children off with shorter stories with simpler vocabulary is a great way to build a strong language foundation and love of literature.

Brian Wildsmith (Professor Noah’s Spaceship)

A book like Professor Noah’s Spaceship by Brian Wildsmith allows for the age-old tale of Noah’s Ark to be read in a way that is accessible, exciting, and engaging for young children. They can comprehend the core plot and message of the story, while also being introduced to contemporary worries like environmental protection.

 

When used side-by-side, modern retellings can help readers start to develop an understanding of the original text. For instance, The Lizzie Bennett Diaries series on YouTube is a retelling of Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice. While the setting is modern-day and the language fits our contemporary vocabulary, the story itself follows the same path and the underlying plot and message are both still there.

 

Modern retellings can also lead to questions that can help engage with the text, like why something is omitted, why a character’s gender has been changed, etc. Asking these questions and thinking on their subsequent answers allow for a deeper understanding of the original text.

 

There are still immense benefits to reading classic stories in their original languages or translations. However, we should have fun with these texts, transform them, and make them more widely understandable. At the end of the day, stories are meant to be told. Whatever way is most digestible to a given audience, be it children, teens, or adults, should be celebrated and encouraged.

Exploring the Wonders of Clay

There is an abundance of freedom and creativity when it comes to crafting with clay. It can be an amazing way to bond with your child and let them experience the joy of artistic expression. Working with clay can help improve fine motor skills in children and, as with any form of art, help to cultivate creativity and inspire confidence. Plus, you’ll be able to keep your child’s creations for years to come.

 

Clay is an easy enough material to work with that anyone, from novice to master, can experiment and create something fun. We’ve provided some activities below to introduce your child to the wonderful, magic world of clay. These activities are accessible for families with any level of skill in working with clay. All you really need is some clay, which you can get either online or from a local craft store, and some imagination.

 

For younger children ages 4 and up who are still learning the alphabet, a great hands-on way to help them learn is to practice making letters out of clay. Help them form the letters and tell them what each one is. Or, alternatively, you can show a picture of letter and say, “Can you make me the letter L?” and have them try to make it themselves. This activity will make letters more tangible to a child by putting shapes into the child’s hands.

 

Another wonderful way to introduce older children, roughly ages 6 and up, to more classic techniques of pottery-making is to teach them how to make a coil pot. Help your child roll clay into a snake-like shape, commonly referred to as a coil. You can even encourage them to score, or carve, eyes and scales if they want to make the coil really look like a snake. You can use specific ceramic tools to score or even just some toothpicks or forks. Then, have your child begin to layer the coil around and around over itself until it forms the structure of a pot. There can be multiple coils or just one depending on the length of the coil(s) and the desired size of the finished pot.

 

If you want to go even more in-depth, you can help your child “slip and score” the coil pot as they create it. If they’ve already made scores in the clay by adding in scales or other designs, then they’re good to go. Otherwise, have them add in some scratch marks along the top and bottom of the clay in between each coil layer. The scoring allows for the coils to interlock, but also for slip to slide into the scores to create even more of a binding.

 

What is slip, you might ask? “Slip is liquid clay. Slip is made by mixing clay with water to create a creamy liquid,” to quote from The Magic of Clay, written by clay artist and illustrator Adalucía. Slip essentially acts a glue to attach clay pieces together. You can pre-make the slip yourself before beginning the craft, either alone or involving your child. Once the slip is ready, help your child put some in between each of the coil layers.

 

If you find your child enchanted by clay, consider reading them books on the subject to enhance their knowledge. A great book that covers a variety of clay techniques, terms, and science is the aforementioned book The Magic of Clay.

 

There are a ton of available resources and activities involving clay. Keep an open mind when exploring various activities—and don’t be afraid to experiment! Allow the freedom of artistic expression thrive between you and your child.

Bird-Watching Can be Family Fun

Bird-watching is a fun and educational way to for children to bond with parents while connecting with nature. Not only does the activity encourage children to explore the biodiversity in their area, it also helps develop patience and respect for the environment.

 

Parents and kids can gather and learn about the many different types of birds living around them. Families in rural areas can find good bird-watching spots near nesting trees and other fruitful vegetation. If you live in an urban environment, you can explore your local park or garden. Or, if you prefer to stay indoors, you can transform a window into an observatory.

 

Here are some tips to help you get started on your own bird-watching adventures:

 

Prepare Your Equipment

Bird-watching is an activity that requires a lot of time outdoors. Make sure to pack a bag with water, snacks, sunscreen, and first-aid remedies. If you’re staying at home, keep the items you need with you at all times so the bird-watching experience isn’t interrupted. You can also build or purchase a birdfeeder in your yard if you’d like to attract more birds.

Michelle Coxon (Grandma Is a Slowpoke)

What Should You Pack?

Along with basic necessities, you should pack a guidebook, a sketchpad with coloring pencils and crayons, a camera, and an observation tool. These items are useful no matter where you go bird-watching—whether it’s at home or at your local park.

 

      • The Guidebook – It’s important to research the different kinds of birds in your area for each season. Local bird guidebooks can offer an accurate visual representation of birds you might observe. Use the guidebook to create a list of birds you and your child want to see. Kids can use the guidebook as a reference to help identify the birds. The National Audubon Society also has an app that helps identify birds in your area.

 

      • The Sketchpad – Illustrating birds is an engaging way to enhance the bird-watching experience. This activity is great for kinetic learners as they can create their own personal guidebook. You can also ask your child to point out key identifying details for each bird. Alternatively, you can purchase coloring books featuring the birds in your area.

 

      • The Camera – Cameras can be useful if you want to capture an image of the birds you observe. However, clicking sounds may spook birds so it is better to use cameras with silent image capturing.

 

      • Observation Tool – Determine what observation tool is best for you and your child. There are various kid-friendly binoculars on the market. Adult binoculars and spotting scopes may be hard for children to use so acquiring a monocular lens is a good alternative too. You can also add an ocular lens adapter to a smartphone for a broader view.

 

When Observing

    • Be Respectful and Responsible
      • If you’re in a public area, don’t stray from designated paths when finding a place to observe. It is important the habitat is kept in the same condition you find it. Find a comfortable place to observe and be mindful of the space you’ll occupy. It’s always safer to observe from a distance.

 

      • It is just as important to be respectful of the bird’s habitat when observing in your backyard. If you’re using a birdfeeder, make sure the food you provide is the best diet for birds in your area. Otherwise, do not feed wild birds, as their diets are very specific to their habitats.

Brian Wildsmith (The Owl and the Woodpecker)

    • Listen!
      • Study the different sounds your local birds make. Have your child focus on identifying the sounds of birds by closing their eyes and picturing the bird’s location. This will help spot birds as they are often heard before they are seen. It’s important to be quiet while listening. If a bird approaches, try not to make any sudden movements.

 

      • Indoor observers can choose to keep their windows open or closed when listening. An open window will allow bird sounds to travel easily, but a closed window can act as a barrier, which may allow for more birds to be seen.

 

    • Be Patient! And Play Games
      • Bird-watching is an activity that requires a lot of patience. It will enhance mindfulness through waiting and observation. To keep your kid engaged, actively ask questions, play an “I Spy” game, or create a simple outdoor-friendly scavenger hunt.

The more you practice bird-watching together, the better you and your child will be at spotting birds. It takes time to familiarize yourself with local birds so don’t be discouraged if the first few times are difficult. Bird-watching is an activity you can always come back to for a unique experience, and the more you do it, the more fun you’ll have! Birds are featured in a variety of our books including The Owl and the Woodpecker, City Birds, Grandma is a Slowpoke, and more!

Helping Children Learn About Colors

Why is learning color recognition at a young age so important? Color is an easily noticeable part of the world around us and is, consequently, one of the ways children can initially classify what they see. Learning the similarities and differences between colors is a basic skill—one that serves as a building block for a child’s future development.

 

Dr. Judith Myers-Walls, project director of Parent-Provider Relationships at Purdue University, says that recognizing different colors is highly important. People, she explains, interact with color in roughly two different ways: we find colors both useful and expressive. Colors are useful in that they can describe an object (e.g. ask someone to hand you the blue bowl during dinner), convey specific information (a red light means “stop”), or help indicate and solve problems (if the front lawn is brown instead of green, then perhaps it should be watered).

 

Colors can also be expressive and convey emotional and artistic meaning (yellow is often associated with happiness and red with energy and strength, for example). Learning both the colors themselves and their many implementations is key for young children as they continue to discover more about the world around them.

 

As easy as this task may be for adults, most children struggle to learn the different names of colors. A Scientific American article discusses a study conducted at Stanford University that asked two-year-olds to name a color and pick it out of a lineup. Surprisingly, “most failed the test outright.” In fact, the study notes, children as old as six can continue to incorrectly name different colors.

 

Why is this so? The article continues by explaining that different categories of colors are not universal. Different languages “vary both in the number of basic color distinctions they make . . . and in the ways they draw those distinctions on the spectrum.” For example, English has eleven basic color words (red, blue, yellow, green, black, white, pink, brown, gray, brown, purple, and orange), while the Pirahã language has only two terms for describing color (light and dark). This complication of learning colors through the lens of one’s own language, combined with the fact that colors themselves are overwhelmingly present at all times, can make learning the names of colors surprisingly difficult for most children.

 

Parents and teachers need not despair, however: a variety of resources on the topic are readily available. The Indiana Institute on Disability and Community acknowledges the difficulty in learning colors and lists several tips for parents who want to help teach their children. Teaching color words and color recognition at the same time—especially by using primary and secondary colors—helps children identify colors more quickly. While reading a story, a parent can point out an object in a specific color and then ask the child to find another object in the same color. In Eating the Rainbow, for instance, you can show your child the green pear and then ask her to find the green broccoli on the same page.

star-bright-books-eating-the-rainbow-cover-new

Another helpful tip from the Indiana Institute is helping children understand how color differs from shape. The Institute notes, “Children tend to notice the shapes and uses of objects before they notice color,” so parents are encouraged to “use identical objects that are different colors” to help children learn.

 

Finally, playing games and involving children in different activities is always an enjoyable way to help with learning colors: sort laundry into different colors, draw pictures with colorful crayons, and play “I Spy” with your child! You can ask your child to find the purple sock while reading Barnaby Bennett or the blue parakeets in Brian Wildsmith’s Animal Colors.

 

Learning about colors doesn’t need to be a discouraging process. Children can have fun exploring the colors in the world around them!

Celebrate National Reading Month at Home with Your Toddler

“You can find magic wherever you look. Sit back and relax, all you need is a book” —Dr. Seuss

 

The birthday of one of the most celebrated children’s authors of all time, Dr. Seuss, just passed, and it falls in March—National Reading Month. In 1998, the National Education Association of America established National Reading Month to honor author, cartoonist, and animator Dr. Seuss, and to encourage reading and literacy habits in children. The month-long celebration is intended to help children discover the pleasure in reading, while aiding their language development skills at the same time.

 

While schools all across America celebrate National Reading Month for children in kindergarten and above, parents can celebrate with their toddlers at home, too! Here are some roles that you can play to celebrate National Reading Month with your young ones in order to jumpstart language development and an interest in reading.

 

Let’s start with an activity as simple as singing the alphabet song, which can greatly improve a toddler’s literacy and cognitive skills. Singing out loud to children helps create a phonological awareness in them, which is the first step in early language development. They will gradually be able to pick up on the sounds of the alphabet and learn to associate each sound with a word. The best way to do this is to recite every letter using an alphabet chart or alphabet flash cards, while pointing to a related object (e.g. A for apple, B for ball, etc.). Animal ABC by Juan de Lascurain and ABC by Brian Wildsmith are two great titles that can help catch the attention of toddlers with eye-catching designs and colors.

 

Rhyming and poetry books also serve the same purpose as alphabet books. Children will learn to pick up on rhythmic patterns and vibrations in sounds, making it easier for them to alter their tones accordingly. The added benefit is that reading rhymes out loud coupled with some fun activities will help toddlers recognize pauses and patterns in speech. You can play a picture-card game with your child and have them come up with rhyming words for every card they draw (e.g. if they draw a card with a picture of a ball, encourage them to come up with rhyming words like “tall,” “wall,” and “call”). Some Star Bright titles that can assist in this aspect of learning are Robert Louis Stevenson’s A Child’s Garden of Verses and Edith Baer’s Words are like Faces.

 

Wordless picture books may contain little or no text, but can be vastly important. They allow children to interpret the stories from only pictures, details, and character expressions. Kids learn the art of prediction and improve their observational skills and critical thinking. One among the many fun activities to do with wordless books is to ask your toddler to retell the story in their own words, and watch how the story unfolds in their imaginative eyes. Children pull words from their memory in order to recite their version—and honestly, they have so much fun doing it that we can’t help but smile. A Circle of Friends by Giora Carmi, with beautiful illustrations and an equally beautiful storyline, is a perfect fit for this activity.

 

Puzzle books and activity books go a long way in helping children exercise their brains and improve their imaginations. Although toddlers may be too young to solve the puzzles, it will greatly improve their spatial reasoning and hand-eye coordination. An in-home activity that you can try with your toddler is to bring together the different shapes (square, circle, triangle) in their favorite puzzle book and help match the shapes and shape colors to patterns in the book. Over time, they will develop a knack for recognizing patterns and shapes, and associate colors with them (e.g. an apple is a circle and is red).

 

Make this year’s National Reading Month a special one for your toddler by illustrating the impact reading can have on them and indulge in some fun, quality time with your tiny tot.

Support Your Child’s Math Development, Part 2: Preschool and Up

In last week’s math blog post we talked with Audrey Martínez-Gudapakkam, an associate researcher at TERC who evaluates K-12 STEM education programs and develops programs for Spanish-speaking families, about specific ways parents and caregivers can introduce math to their babies and toddlers.

 

In this post, Audrey and Marlene Kliman, a senior scientist at TERC, explain how adults can support a child’s learning as they enter school and begin interacting with math in the classroom. Marlene notes that as children begin working with addition, subtraction, and other math concepts, they develop a relationship with math that can follow them throughout their lives. Fostering a positive attitude toward math is one of the most important things an adult can do for their child.

 

Here are some suggestions for two age groups.

 

Children Ages 3-5

As children get older, they make connections to math concepts by talking through what they are doing and why. Asking children open-ended questions, Marlene says, helps them develop a deeper understanding of how math works instead of a right or wrong answer.

 

Audrey offers these ideas for engaging children in activities full of math learning.

 

Size and Measurement

“When we sort clean laundry, we talk together about clothing sizes for each person and how big belongs to Daddy, medium-sized is for Mommy, and small is for you,” Audrey says. “As we pick up clothing, I ask my daughter, ‘How do you know it is small, medium, or large? Check to see if it fits you.’ She can measure it by putting it on top of herself and measuring it against her body.”

Sorting laundry is a great time to talk with children about sizes. (from Rosa’s Very Big Job)

Numbers and Counting

While preparing food, Audrey talks about numbers with her daughter. She asks, “How do you know how many tomatoes we have?” Then she says, “Okay, let’s count them together.” As Audrey explains, “Counting physical objects helps them understand the concept of the number of elements in a set or group.”

 

Sequencing

While getting dressed or doing other routine activities, Audrey asks her daughter, “What do you need to put on first, second, third . . . last?” Or, “What do you do first, second, third . . . last?” Audrey says, “This awareness of steps in a process helps her learn about sequences, which in school can help her with computer programming.”

 

Children Ages 6 and Older

When children enter first grade, adults can help their children with homework by asking open-ended questions that prompt them to explain their thought process. Audrey says, “Whenever my daughter is doing her math homework, even if she gets the right answer, I always ask her, ‘How do you know? Show me how you know.’ I try to avoid telling her she’s wrong when she makes a mistake (which is hard because sometimes just by the tone of my voice she guesses it!). Instead, I try to help her notice the mistake herself as she checks her work, or we check the work using a different strategy. That way she can see where she made a mistake. Sometimes I might have her draw it or demonstrate it for me.”

 

Some other ideas Audrey suggests are:

  • Play a Game: “I tell my daughter, ‘I have a total of ten stones.’ I put three on the table and then have her explain how she knows how many stones are hiding in my hand.”
  • Count in Groups: “When we do counting, I ask her to count in groups of two, five, ten, et cetera. I tell her, ‘You know that your hand has five fingers, so you don’t have to count each one since you already know they add up to five.’”
  • Teach about Fractions: “At school my daughter is learning about quarters and halves so when I give her a cookie I ask her how she knows if a half or a quarter is more. Then I show her what each looks like by cutting the cookie.”

Several small parts can add up to one HUGE whole. (from Small Medium Large)

How do these strategies benefit kids for math learning and beyond? Audrey explains that by learning through practice, children discover they can continue to improve their math skills. When adults praise kids for not giving up even if they feel frustrated, it helps them develop social emotional skills for managing strong feelings. And children who can entertain themselves for long periods of time with building or creative projects develop strong reasoning and concentration skills.

 

Most importantly, instilling a positive attitude toward math helps children enjoy learning about it throughout their lives. “At one point,” Audrey says, “my daughter said, ‘I love math, and when I grow up I want to be a mathematician!’” This is the kind of enthusiasm we all want for our kids!