Author Archives: Star Bright Books

Honoring Juneteenth Through Listening, Learning, and Reflecting

Juneteenth is a holiday celebrated each year by Black and African American people all across the United States. Unfortunately, Juneteenth (along with many other notable events in Black American history) has been left out of many classrooms and history books. As Star Bright Books has been listening and learning from the Black community, we felt it important to discuss the history and importance of this holiday, as well as the implications it carries in our society.

History

The ratification of the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, is often considered the end of slavery in the US. However, plantation owners throughout the South continued to enslave Black people for nearly two and a half more years. On June 19, 1865, two months after the Confederate Army surrendered, signaling the end of the US Civil War, Union General Gordon Granger arrived in Galveston, Texas, to announce the end of the war and declare the liberation of all enslaved people there.

After this announcement, many formerly enslaved people journeyed north, unsure of what their futures would look like. Despite numerous hardships, Black and African American families gathered on June 19 the following year to celebrate a day that then came to be considered the true ending of chattel slavery. The date, June 19, was shortened and combined to become one word—Juneteenth—and is celebrated each year.

A group of people posing for a photo

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Juneteenth celebration at Emancipation Park in 1880

Celebrations

On June 19, 1866, formerly enslaved people in Texas gathered for prayer and the singing of spirituals to celebrate the anniversary of their freedom. This celebration effectively began the tradition of Juneteenth celebrations for Black communities.

Soon thereafter, Black and African American people in other states began celebrating Juneteenth as well. It became a means to bring families together for reassurance and prayer.  Some formerly enslaved men, women, and their children would even make a pilgrimage to Galveston to acknowledge their pasts and pray for their futures.

More recently, Juneteenth celebrations have come to include barbeques, musical performances, and beauty contests beginning in the first week of June and continuing through June 19. It has become a way to celebrate the importance of Black culture in America and has become representative of the ongoing fight for racial equality.

Why don’t we know about Juneteenth?

During the nineteenth century, Juneteenth celebrations existed almost exclusively for African American communities. Many white communities even banned the use of public property for these celebrations. In the early 1900s, when classroom and textbook education overtook the more traditional form of home education, both Black and white segregated schools put very little emphasis on Black and African American history—as they continue to do today.

Juneteenth and other notable African American historical events have been treated as less of a priority. This, coupled with a lack of economic resources in the early twentieth century and through Great Depression, allowed very few Black people to celebrate Juneteenth unless it fell on a weekend. However, in the 1950s and ’60s the holiday resurged with the growing strength of the civil rights movement. Young protestors returned home from rallies with plans for new Juneteenth celebrations.

Blackout Bike Ride in New Orleans, June 19 2020 (Photo courtesy of Adam Dawson at Stay Red Studios).

Juneteenth Today

This year, Juneteenth has gained national attention in light of the recent police murders of George Floyd, Breonna Taylor, and many other Black people. The recent protests surrounding their deaths have reenergized the fight for racial justice and equality. In light of this attention, leaders of the Black Lives Matter movement called upon its supporters to celebrate and utilize Juneteenth as a time to reflect, learn, and connect across Black communities.  

Why should we honor Juneteenth?

Conversations are ongoing to declare Juneteenth a national holiday, with especially strong pushes in recent months. Some states and cities have already passed bills to officially recognize Juneteenth as a state holiday or local celebration.

Beyond this holiday, however, it is important to stand in solidarity with the Black community and actively support the continued fight for racial equality. We must continue to educate ourselves about the harsh history of racial and ethnic inequality in the United States—it is only through learning and understanding that we may find the compassion and empathy to support others.

Make Handwashing a Fun and Familiar Experience

Good hygiene, especially clean hands, is important for our health and safety. Handwashing helps prevent the spread of icky germs and bacteria like the coronavirus.

 

The Centers for Disease Control recommends washing your hands for approximately 20 seconds. But it is difficult to get children to concentrate for that long. So how can you make handwashing fun for youngsters?

 

Pediatricians suggest washing your own hands with your little one to set an example. Another tip is to tether handwashing to other fun activities, like arts and crafts.

 

Music can also make handwashing fun! Here is a cute “wash up-up-up” song to sing with your child. If you sing along with the audio track (one beat/second), the scrubbing section in the middle lasts for the recommended 20 seconds.

 

Be well and stay safe!

 

Illustration © 2018 by Ying-Hwa Hu (from Clean Up, Up, Up!)


Wash Up, Up, Up!

 

Wash up, up, up!

Wash up, up, up!

This is how you wash your hands:

 

You Wet

Lather

Scrub

Rinse, and

Dry

 

You wet your hands, you can use cold water

You lather your hands with a squirt of soap

Then you scrub your hands lots of different ways

 

You scrub the palms, one, two, three

 

You scrub the backs, one, two, three

 

You scrub the sides, one, two, three

 

You scrub the fingers, one, two, three

 

You scrub the tips, one, two, three

 

Then you rinse the soap off and dry your hands

And you’ve washed up, up, up!

One more time:

 

Wash up, up, up!

Wash up, up, up!

This is how you wash your hands:

 

You Wet

Lather

Scrub

Rinse, and

Dry

 

Lyrics and music © 2020 by Malcolm Pittman

Benjamin Futterman: vocals, guitar, audio editing

Ela Ben-Ur: vocals, fiddle

Malcolm Pittman: vocals, banjo

Courtesy of Star Bright Books

(Hand-washing procedure taken from the Centers for Disease Control)

Tips for Safely Preparing and Storing Food for Little Ones

As parents, the quality of the food your children and infants consume matters. You can take several steps to make sure you are being as safe as possible when preparing and storing food for your family.

It’s important to stay clean when preparing food for babies and kids. Always wash your hands, utensils, appliances, and sinks as often as possible. Use soap and water or other kid-friendly cleansers when cleaning. Make sure to use separate cutting boards when preparing your own baby food.

(images from Eating the Rainbow)

If you’re browsing the grocery store for baby food or ingredients, it is imperative that all containers you pick out are completely sealed. The can lids should be secure and not bulging, leaking, or dented on the seam or rim. Plastic and paper products should likewise be completely sealed and not torn.

In addition, check the sell-by and use-by dates on each package. The sell-by date is used by the store to indicate the shelf life of the product. The item on the shelf should be sold by a particular date, but this does not mean it can’t be consumed after that date. In contrast, the use-by (or sometimes best-by) date indicates when the consumer should use the product. Remember to buy food in reasonable quantities according to your family size. Adjust your supply amount to your schedule and needs.

After you’ve purchased baby food, check the storage instructions on the product. Each brand and product type varies so it is crucial to verify each time. If the storing instructions are not on the container, you can look up the product on the brand website or contact the brand for more information.

One of the best ways to store homemade baby food is to freeze it. The recommended fridge temperature is 40°For below and 0°F or below for your freezer. Check your fridge and freezer thermometer and adjust if needed.

You can freeze baby food in clean ice-cube trays. Do not use the same ice-cube tray for other foods or purposes. Cover the tray with plastic wrap or a sheet before putting it in the freezer. After the baby food has frozen in the tray, you can transfer it to another freezer-safe container or plastic bag. Do not transfer the food to glass jars or store-bought baby food containers. Unless the jars are labeled freezer-safe, they can be dangerous to store. Label the freezer-safe container with the type of food, date, and quantity.

The best time to consume frozen baby food is 1–3 months. Each ice cube is about 1 oz., which gives you a measured food quantity for your baby. To thaw, place the frozen bag or container in a bowl with warm water. Replace the water as needed. Transfer the baby food to a serving dish and place it in your fridge overnight. A microwave can also be used to thaw by transferring the baby food to a microwave-safe container and using the DEFROST setting. Occasionally stop heating to stir the food.

Finally—and most importantly—serve the food to your baby or child with love and care! The thought and effort put into the preparation and storage of food are vital to their development.

A variety of our books feature food preparation, including Zachary’s Dinnertime, Cake Day, and Eating the Rainbow. Share a book with your child while they eat or read as a treat!

The Extraordinary Benefits of Bedtime Stories

Reading a bedtime story with your child is a great way to wind down after a long day. You can start reading together at any age—but the earlier you start, the better. However, reading at different stages will allow for different experiences. Babies between 4 and 6 months old will begin to show an interest in books through touch, and by their first year, they’ll be able to understand basic concepts such as colors and shapes. It’s a good idea to start reading board books with children ages 3 and younger. Children ages 4 and up can continue reading a variety of picture books.

Bedtime reading with children can be a magical experience. (images from Read to Me) 

 

Along with introducing your child to early literacy, regularly reading to them has numerous benefits that will help your child as they grow. Here are some of the most important ones!

 

Scheduling a time to read with your child will help establish a routine. Practicing healthy routines at an early stage will prove beneficial. It aids in the development of organization skills, so when children grow older they can practice time management. Separating time to read and relax is just as important as time spent working. Choose a time that works best for you and your child. You don’t have to read every night, but you should set a goal for how much you do want to read. Try not to frame reading as a chore—it should be something your child looks forward to doing with you.

 

Reading stories will broaden your child’s vocabulary. Bedtime stories can be used to practice speech and reading comprehension among all languages. This is an especially helpful tool for homes where more than one language is spoken. If your child comes across a word they don’t know, take time to look up and learn the word together. You may already be familiar with the word, but it is important that your child takes time to practice searching for words unknown to them. This habit will help them when they start reading on their own. You can write down the words you learn together in a notebook and look back at them after you finish each storybook. If your child is learning more than one language, you can write down the word’s translation alongside its definition.

 

Use bedtime stories as a learning tool. You can use storybooks to introduce your child to their own cultural background and ancestry. Or venture from the stories you read growing up and find new, fun retellings of classics. Don’t limit the stories you read—there are countless bedtime tales from around the world. Be sure to research storybooks by authors from diverse backgrounds. Reading stories from various backgrounds will help children learn about different cultures and the importance of diversity and inclusion. Ask your child what types of stories interest them and if there is a country or culture they are curious about. Take time to reflect on the stories you read.

 

 

Read different types of books! Storybooks come in many different forms. Board books are ideal for children in their very early stages of reading and listening, picture books are recommended for children ages 4 and up, and beginner-level chapter books can be read as early as age 5, depending on the content. Graphic novels are also a great choice when your child grows out of the early stages of reading. There are many kid-friendly graphic novels for different age groups. In addition, audiobooks are a practical option, especially after a long day of work and school. You can purchase books that include audio guides or look for the audiobook versions of your favorite storybooks. Play the audiobook and follow along together if you have a physical copy with you. If not, actively listen to the story with your child.

 

A lot of our books make great bedtime stories including Read to Me; Good Night, Little Sea Otter; and Woolly the Wide Awake Sheep.

The Benefits of Telling Old Stories in New Ways

For many of us, classic literature and stories can be daunting at best and inaccessible at worst. The language can be tough to understand and the plots can seem completely outdated and unrelatable. However, retelling old stories in new ways can open up a whole world of literature for people by making it more relevant and understandable. This is especially true for children and teens.

 

When we tell a story, there are two core questions in the backs of our minds: “Why do we tell it?” and “What can we learn from it?” Stories can mean different things to different people, of course, but we tell and retell stories that have an impact on us because at the heart of them are relevant themes: love, hope, perseverance, family, to name a few.

 

Most school systems still have students read works by Shakespeare. If we want people to understand the core messages in a well-known play such as Macbeth—which contains contemporarily relevant questions around tyranny, betrayal, and morality—then why not make it understandable? By using simplified vocabulary and plots, stories like Macbeth can be accessible to a wider audience.

 

As humans, we will always retell stories, modifying them to fit contemporary needs. Consider the Grimm Brothers’ version of Cinderella, for example, and compare it to the more contemporary Disney-movie version. The Grimm Brothers’ version is quite different. It contains some more gruesome elements. Disney’s version eliminates those plot points while keeping other key points, such as the stepmother and stepsisters, similar. There are also other retellings of Cinderella that use the classic story to focus on contemporary issues like feminism.

 

For children especially, stories that contain big words they don’t understand can lead to frustration. While there are definitely benefits to reading stories like The Odyssey to youngsters—such as language acquisition and experiencing the story in its original format— it can be overwhelming. Children also have shorter attention spans than adults, making it much harder to get them to sit and listen to long stories. Starting children off with shorter stories with simpler vocabulary is a great way to build a strong language foundation and love of literature.

Brian Wildsmith (Professor Noah’s Spaceship)

A book like Professor Noah’s Spaceship by Brian Wildsmith allows for the age-old tale of Noah’s Ark to be read in a way that is accessible, exciting, and engaging for young children. They can comprehend the core plot and message of the story, while also being introduced to contemporary worries like environmental protection.

 

When used side-by-side, modern retellings can help readers start to develop an understanding of the original text. For instance, The Lizzie Bennett Diaries series on YouTube is a retelling of Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice. While the setting is modern-day and the language fits our contemporary vocabulary, the story itself follows the same path and the underlying plot and message are both still there.

 

Modern retellings can also lead to questions that can help engage with the text, like why something is omitted, why a character’s gender has been changed, etc. Asking these questions and thinking on their subsequent answers allow for a deeper understanding of the original text.

 

There are still immense benefits to reading classic stories in their original languages or translations. However, we should have fun with these texts, transform them, and make them more widely understandable. At the end of the day, stories are meant to be told. Whatever way is most digestible to a given audience, be it children, teens, or adults, should be celebrated and encouraged.

Exploring the Wonders of Clay

There is an abundance of freedom and creativity when it comes to crafting with clay. It can be an amazing way to bond with your child and let them experience the joy of artistic expression. Working with clay can help improve fine motor skills in children and, as with any form of art, help to cultivate creativity and inspire confidence. Plus, you’ll be able to keep your child’s creations for years to come.

 

Clay is an easy enough material to work with that anyone, from novice to master, can experiment and create something fun. We’ve provided some activities below to introduce your child to the wonderful, magic world of clay. These activities are accessible for families with any level of skill in working with clay. All you really need is some clay, which you can get either online or from a local craft store, and some imagination.

 

For younger children ages 4 and up who are still learning the alphabet, a great hands-on way to help them learn is to practice making letters out of clay. Help them form the letters and tell them what each one is. Or, alternatively, you can show a picture of letter and say, “Can you make me the letter L?” and have them try to make it themselves. This activity will make letters more tangible to a child by putting shapes into the child’s hands.

 

Another wonderful way to introduce older children, roughly ages 6 and up, to more classic techniques of pottery-making is to teach them how to make a coil pot. Help your child roll clay into a snake-like shape, commonly referred to as a coil. You can even encourage them to score, or carve, eyes and scales if they want to make the coil really look like a snake. You can use specific ceramic tools to score or even just some toothpicks or forks. Then, have your child begin to layer the coil around and around over itself until it forms the structure of a pot. There can be multiple coils or just one depending on the length of the coil(s) and the desired size of the finished pot.

 

If you want to go even more in-depth, you can help your child “slip and score” the coil pot as they create it. If they’ve already made scores in the clay by adding in scales or other designs, then they’re good to go. Otherwise, have them add in some scratch marks along the top and bottom of the clay in between each coil layer. The scoring allows for the coils to interlock, but also for slip to slide into the scores to create even more of a binding.

 

What is slip, you might ask? “Slip is liquid clay. Slip is made by mixing clay with water to create a creamy liquid,” to quote from The Magic of Clay, written by clay artist and illustrator Adalucía. Slip essentially acts a glue to attach clay pieces together. You can pre-make the slip yourself before beginning the craft, either alone or involving your child. Once the slip is ready, help your child put some in between each of the coil layers.

 

If you find your child enchanted by clay, consider reading them books on the subject to enhance their knowledge. A great book that covers a variety of clay techniques, terms, and science is the aforementioned book The Magic of Clay.

 

There are a ton of available resources and activities involving clay. Keep an open mind when exploring various activities—and don’t be afraid to experiment! Allow the freedom of artistic expression thrive between you and your child.

Bird-Watching Can be Family Fun

Bird-watching is a fun and educational way to for children to bond with parents while connecting with nature. Not only does the activity encourage children to explore the biodiversity in their area, it also helps develop patience and respect for the environment.

 

Parents and kids can gather and learn about the many different types of birds living around them. Families in rural areas can find good bird-watching spots near nesting trees and other fruitful vegetation. If you live in an urban environment, you can explore your local park or garden. Or, if you prefer to stay indoors, you can transform a window into an observatory.

 

Here are some tips to help you get started on your own bird-watching adventures:

 

Prepare Your Equipment

Bird-watching is an activity that requires a lot of time outdoors. Make sure to pack a bag with water, snacks, sunscreen, and first-aid remedies. If you’re staying at home, keep the items you need with you at all times so the bird-watching experience isn’t interrupted. You can also build or purchase a birdfeeder in your yard if you’d like to attract more birds.

Michelle Coxon (Grandma Is a Slowpoke)

What Should You Pack?

Along with basic necessities, you should pack a guidebook, a sketchpad with coloring pencils and crayons, a camera, and an observation tool. These items are useful no matter where you go bird-watching—whether it’s at home or at your local park.

 

      • The Guidebook – It’s important to research the different kinds of birds in your area for each season. Local bird guidebooks can offer an accurate visual representation of birds you might observe. Use the guidebook to create a list of birds you and your child want to see. Kids can use the guidebook as a reference to help identify the birds. The National Audubon Society also has an app that helps identify birds in your area.

 

      • The Sketchpad – Illustrating birds is an engaging way to enhance the bird-watching experience. This activity is great for kinetic learners as they can create their own personal guidebook. You can also ask your child to point out key identifying details for each bird. Alternatively, you can purchase coloring books featuring the birds in your area.

 

      • The Camera – Cameras can be useful if you want to capture an image of the birds you observe. However, clicking sounds may spook birds so it is better to use cameras with silent image capturing.

 

      • Observation Tool – Determine what observation tool is best for you and your child. There are various kid-friendly binoculars on the market. Adult binoculars and spotting scopes may be hard for children to use so acquiring a monocular lens is a good alternative too. You can also add an ocular lens adapter to a smartphone for a broader view.

 

When Observing

    • Be Respectful and Responsible
      • If you’re in a public area, don’t stray from designated paths when finding a place to observe. It is important the habitat is kept in the same condition you find it. Find a comfortable place to observe and be mindful of the space you’ll occupy. It’s always safer to observe from a distance.

 

      • It is just as important to be respectful of the bird’s habitat when observing in your backyard. If you’re using a birdfeeder, make sure the food you provide is the best diet for birds in your area. Otherwise, do not feed wild birds, as their diets are very specific to their habitats.

Brian Wildsmith (The Owl and the Woodpecker)

    • Listen!
      • Study the different sounds your local birds make. Have your child focus on identifying the sounds of birds by closing their eyes and picturing the bird’s location. This will help spot birds as they are often heard before they are seen. It’s important to be quiet while listening. If a bird approaches, try not to make any sudden movements.

 

      • Indoor observers can choose to keep their windows open or closed when listening. An open window will allow bird sounds to travel easily, but a closed window can act as a barrier, which may allow for more birds to be seen.

 

    • Be Patient! And Play Games
      • Bird-watching is an activity that requires a lot of patience. It will enhance mindfulness through waiting and observation. To keep your kid engaged, actively ask questions, play an “I Spy” game, or create a simple outdoor-friendly scavenger hunt.

The more you practice bird-watching together, the better you and your child will be at spotting birds. It takes time to familiarize yourself with local birds so don’t be discouraged if the first few times are difficult. Bird-watching is an activity you can always come back to for a unique experience, and the more you do it, the more fun you’ll have! Birds are featured in a variety of our books including The Owl and the Woodpecker, City Birds, Grandma is a Slowpoke, and more!

Taking Time to Reflect on Holocaust Remembrance Day

Today, January 27, is International Holocaust Remembrance Day. It is a day dedicated to remembering the atrocities of the Holocaust, with the ultimate goal being that the memory of these crimes will, hopefully, enable us to prevent such a tragedy from occurring again in the future. It is important that today we take a moment to reflect on the history of the Holocaust and how this day came to be.

 

Photo courtesy of FreePik.com.

The Holocaust was the systematic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its allies. Nearly 2 out of every 3 European Jews were killed. Other groups who were targeted for persecution included Roma, people with disabilities, Slavic peoples, and homosexuals, to name a few. People were rounded up and sent to Nazi concentration camps on cattle-car trains where they were either immediately killed or forced to live and work in horrific conditions. It was, in short, genocide fueled by racism and oppression.

 

January 27 was specifically chosen by the United Nations to commemorate the anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz, one of the most notorious concentration camps. This year, 2020, marks the 75th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz. The International Holocaust Remembrance Day was launched by the Holocaust and United Nations Outreach Programme in 2006 through the passing of United Nations General Assembly Resolution 60/7. The resolution rejects any denial of the Holocaust as an historical event, either in full or in part, and commends nations that have actively engaged in the preservation of sites once used as Nazi death camps, concentration camps, forced labor camps, and prisons during the Holocaust. In 2006, the first ceremony drew over 2,200 people, and was viewed by countless others globally via webcast and live television broadcast.

 

Regarding the importance of this program, the United Nations says: “The Programme works to ensure the voices of survivors are heard and heeded as warning against the consequences of anti-Semitism, racism and other forms of discrimination and prejudice. The disturbing spread of neo-Nazism and other extremist groups and the growing climate of intolerance and anti-Semitism makes the work of the Programme particularly urgent. Through its educational activities about the Holocaust, the Programme calls on all generations to use their voice to stand up for human rights, challenge discrimination, anti-Semitism and racism, and defend essential democratic values in their communities.”

 

While the United States does participate in International Holocaust Remembrance Day, it also has the Days of Remembrance between April 28 and May 5. These days serve as the annual commemoration of the Holocaust in the US.

 

The Holocaust was a devastating and tragic series of events that should have never occurred. The world began to say the phrase “never again” after these events—and we need to remain constantly vigilant and outspoken to ensure they never do.

 

Today, in honor of International Holocaust Remembrance Day, please take a moment to reflect on the global impact of the Holocaust. Do some research using reputable sources, such as on the websites for the UN or the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Read books on the subject. At Star Bright Books, we’ve published books such as Hidden Letters, Lonek’s Journey, Defying the Nazis, and I Only See the Person in Front of Me, which all provide different perspectives of the Holocaust. Watch a Holocaust documentary or videos of survivors talking about their experiences. Have a discussion with family and about the Holocaust, what it was, and why we remember it. If you can, go to a Holocaust Remembrance event near you.

 

We will never forget.

Using Books to Teach Children Kindness and Acceptance

Image depicts a teacher showing an illustrated book to a group of young students.

Bibliotherapy is usually used to address common childhood and adolescent concepts (Image from Layla’s Head Scarf by Miriam Cohen).

Books entertain, inspire, and educate. But they can even go beyond that. Through a process known as bibliotherapy, books have become useful tools to aid in social and emotional growth for a wide range of people.

 

Bibliotherapy uses different books to aid with different issues, and thus, there are many ways it can be applied. The basics of how bibliotherapy works stay the same, though. Bibliotherapy is composed of three stages: identification (an individual reads a book and relates to a character or situation in the text), catharsis (that person becomes emotionally involved in the text and experiences an emotional release through discussion), and insight (the reader is more aware of their own situation and has gained some new perspective).

 

In academic settings, bibliotherapy is known as developmental bibliotherapy and is usually used to address common childhood and adolescent concepts such as puberty, bodily functions, and developmental milestones. However, bibliotherapy can also be adapted to help children understand a variety of subjects including disabilities.

 

While there is an inherent lack of research on using developmental bibliotherapy to teach children about disabilities, studies have found that bibliotherapeutic instruction can help improve the self-efficacy, feelings, and productivity of children with disabilities. For children without disabilities, bibliotherapy can help create a better understanding of those with disabilities. As a result, a more accepting and inclusive classroom environment can be built.

 

In order to establish an inclusive classroom, two teachers named Ms. Schild and Ms. Stone took part in a 2014 study that analyzed how students in their multiage classes responded to bibliotherapy. The teachers were motivated to try bibliotherapy after realizing how students without disabilities struggled to interact with and respect those who did.

 

Ms. Schild’s class of second and third graders started by reading a book called In Looking after Louis. Through their conversation about Louis’s disability and his behavior, it became clear the children viewed “disabled” and “non-disabled” as rigid categories with set characteristics. However, as the study continued, this outlook started to change.

 

Since the students perceived “disabled” and “non-disabled” so differently, Ms. Schild led a conversation about the meaning of “normal.” Prior to discussion, the class read the books Crow Boy, My Brother Sammy, and Ian’s Walk. After analyzing these works, the students were able to consider the individual differences of the characters in the story, along with differences in how the characters’ disabilities were expressed in each story. This challenged the previous mindset of the class and helped students understand how there are “more fluid boundaries to the definitions of disability and normality.”

 

By the end of the study, the teachers observed a change in how their students with and without disabilities interacted with one another. Students who were once annoyed by their classmates with disabilities became more understanding and respectful of their needs. A few students with disabilities also went through changes during this study. One student who usually did not participate in class discussions felt more inclined to speak up. Seeing himself represented in a book character made it easier for him to voice his opinions since he could look at the character and say, “That’s like me!”

 

While this study can be considered a success, it is admittedly difficult to measure the effectiveness of bibliotherapy. Between a lack of substantial research and the fact that interpretations of literature are highly subjective, results can vary greatly. Because of this, there is no way to guarantee bibliotherapy will prove successful for everyone; however, the worse outcome is that no change occurs. With that in mind, this technique is worth studying in more classroom settings.

Support Your Child’s Math Development, Part 2: Preschool and Up

In last week’s math blog post we talked with Audrey Martínez-Gudapakkam, an associate researcher at TERC who evaluates K-12 STEM education programs and develops programs for Spanish-speaking families, about specific ways parents and caregivers can introduce math to their babies and toddlers.

 

In this post, Audrey and Marlene Kliman, a senior scientist at TERC, explain how adults can support a child’s learning as they enter school and begin interacting with math in the classroom. Marlene notes that as children begin working with addition, subtraction, and other math concepts, they develop a relationship with math that can follow them throughout their lives. Fostering a positive attitude toward math is one of the most important things an adult can do for their child.

 

Here are some suggestions for two age groups.

 

Children Ages 3-5

As children get older, they make connections to math concepts by talking through what they are doing and why. Asking children open-ended questions, Marlene says, helps them develop a deeper understanding of how math works instead of a right or wrong answer.

 

Audrey offers these ideas for engaging children in activities full of math learning.

 

Size and Measurement

“When we sort clean laundry, we talk together about clothing sizes for each person and how big belongs to Daddy, medium-sized is for Mommy, and small is for you,” Audrey says. “As we pick up clothing, I ask my daughter, ‘How do you know it is small, medium, or large? Check to see if it fits you.’ She can measure it by putting it on top of herself and measuring it against her body.”

Sorting laundry is a great time to talk with children about sizes. (from Rosa’s Very Big Job)

Numbers and Counting

While preparing food, Audrey talks about numbers with her daughter. She asks, “How do you know how many tomatoes we have?” Then she says, “Okay, let’s count them together.” As Audrey explains, “Counting physical objects helps them understand the concept of the number of elements in a set or group.”

 

Sequencing

While getting dressed or doing other routine activities, Audrey asks her daughter, “What do you need to put on first, second, third . . . last?” Or, “What do you do first, second, third . . . last?” Audrey says, “This awareness of steps in a process helps her learn about sequences, which in school can help her with computer programming.”

 

Children Ages 6 and Older

When children enter first grade, adults can help their children with homework by asking open-ended questions that prompt them to explain their thought process. Audrey says, “Whenever my daughter is doing her math homework, even if she gets the right answer, I always ask her, ‘How do you know? Show me how you know.’ I try to avoid telling her she’s wrong when she makes a mistake (which is hard because sometimes just by the tone of my voice she guesses it!). Instead, I try to help her notice the mistake herself as she checks her work, or we check the work using a different strategy. That way she can see where she made a mistake. Sometimes I might have her draw it or demonstrate it for me.”

 

Some other ideas Audrey suggests are:

  • Play a Game: “I tell my daughter, ‘I have a total of ten stones.’ I put three on the table and then have her explain how she knows how many stones are hiding in my hand.”
  • Count in Groups: “When we do counting, I ask her to count in groups of two, five, ten, et cetera. I tell her, ‘You know that your hand has five fingers, so you don’t have to count each one since you already know they add up to five.’”
  • Teach about Fractions: “At school my daughter is learning about quarters and halves so when I give her a cookie I ask her how she knows if a half or a quarter is more. Then I show her what each looks like by cutting the cookie.”

Several small parts can add up to one HUGE whole. (from Small Medium Large)

How do these strategies benefit kids for math learning and beyond? Audrey explains that by learning through practice, children discover they can continue to improve their math skills. When adults praise kids for not giving up even if they feel frustrated, it helps them develop social emotional skills for managing strong feelings. And children who can entertain themselves for long periods of time with building or creative projects develop strong reasoning and concentration skills.

 

Most importantly, instilling a positive attitude toward math helps children enjoy learning about it throughout their lives. “At one point,” Audrey says, “my daughter said, ‘I love math, and when I grow up I want to be a mathematician!’” This is the kind of enthusiasm we all want for our kids!